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IL ” GRANDE ROMANZO DI NAPOLI” E LA LETTERATURA CONTEMPORANEA Emma Giammattei


Il bel romanzo di Domenico Starnone Via Gemito (Milano, Feltri¬nelli, 2000), a chiusura del Novecento reinveste uno straordinario capitale narra¬tivo su un immaginario antico, a cerchi concentrici – un appartamento, una rete di vie, una città dalla quale si parte e alla quale si ritorna, in quanto originaria struttura romanzesca. Proprio perciò esso si presterebbe ad una riflessione più ampia, che coinvolga il carattere stesso della più recente letteratura, lo statuto debolissimo della letterarietà contemporanea proiettato ormai all’indietro, sulla tradizione e, infine, il significato residuo, nella Babele delle interpretazioni e dei manuali di storia letteraria, dell’idea di romanzo.
Un’immagine è un mito che comincia la sua avventura, che si particolarizza per irradiare nuovamente. Qui mi riferisco ad una immagine spa¬ziale che trovò la sua compiuta articolazione ed organicità all’interno della cultura napoletana di secondo Ottocento, nella sua grande stagione artistico-letteraria e che ora ritroviamo, ancora funzionante in Via Gemito, riconoscibile tratto nel magma della let¬teratura italiana contemporanea.
I miei sondaggi vòlti, anni fa, a misurare l’immagine chiusa nella letteratura napo¬letana (cfr. Il “grande romanzo di Napoli”, in Napoli, a c. di G.Galasso, Bari-Roma, Laterza, 1987), restituivano infatti un vero sistema, dai molteplici li¬velli: la metafora topografica, di Napoli, del suo reticolo di vie, come di un im¬menso in¬terno, si presenta nel secondo Ottocento come costante misura nar¬rativa, forma del testo, nelle pagine della Serao o di Di Giacomo. Non solo. La ricorrente im¬magine di uno spazio chiuso, evocante una temporalità bloccata, ri¬sultava omo¬loga, in termini di realismo, al contesto sociopsicologico degli inferi partenopei. Modello spaziale e modello culturale coincidevano. In seguito, nel Novecento, con sempre più estese soluzioni di continuità, almeno da Bernari alla Ortese a Prisco, quella forma ha registrato variazioni significative e progressive, inscrivendosi , alia et eadem, di volta in volta nella doppia rubrica del racconto di tradizione o di innovazione espressiva e strutturale.
Ma ora? Ora, nel romanzo di Starnone l’immagine spaziale che determina la narrazione, la topografia napoletana che qui delinea il percorso da via Zara a via Gemito a corso Arnaldo Lucci, introduce la forma ulteriore del ricordo-del-ricordo; e insieme il grande tema della ricerca della Madre, – colei che tace, che non ha parole, chiusa nel mormorio impotente del dialetto – attraverso e contro la figura invadente del Padre. Nella su¬perficie della trama è quest’ultimo il protagonista, colui che convoglia anche il turpiloquio napoletano nella lussureggiante super-lingua di un perpetuo racconto fantastico, riparo dalla realtà e crea¬zione della ‘sua’ verità. Intanto, però, il narratore, che non risiede più a Napoli, secondo un tragitto ormai topico, segnala la sua distanza, poiché estrae il racconto dal passato, l’immediato dopoguerra fino agli anni Sessanta a Napoli: vale a dire da una realtà che fu già rac¬contata in con¬temporanea, e sempre all’insegna di quel modello narrativo, da Bernari (Speranzella), dalla Ortese (Il mare non bagna Napoli), da Prisco (La dama di piazza), e che qui riemerge anche nel va¬lore docu¬mentario di un ambiente, quello dei pittori napoletani del dopoguerra, Ricci, Chiancone, De Stefano, i rivali del pittore-ferroviere Federico Starnone, il padre, appunto, di colui che narra in prima persona.
Ed è significativo che la nekuya, il ritorno dello scrit¬tore, alla fine degli anni Novanta, nella città infernale, alla ricerca di Euridice, si ricostituisca come percorso di strade, riattraversamento di luoghi, riconoscimento delle stazioni di una via crucis, dove il nome della strada che intitola il romanzo assume non solo la metafora del più tipico artista napoletano, ma anche la tonalità diffusa del male di vivere. In questo testo insomma lo spazio – come affermava un grande storico, Braudel – è più importante del tempo; perché i luoghi determinano l’ac¬cadere, e alla fine diventano giacimenti dove si è sedimentato il disagio di esi¬stenze chiuse, bloccate tra una cucina stretta e un bugigattolo che diventa mer¬ce¬ria. Così la vita silenziosa e sopraffatta di Rusiné, la mamma, che si svolge in un interno soffocante e dentro un gomitolo di strade.
L’immagine chiusa è dun¬que cronòtopo, vale a dire misura di intersezione spazio-temporale, nel senso che lo spazio è la cruna attraverso la quale passa il tempo e in quella strettoia prende forma. In effetti, lo spazio chiuso determina anche la figura ribelle, ansiosa di aperto, del padre, il ferroviere-pittore che non riesce a partire, a “decollare”. An¬che se è il personaggio che si muove di più, quello che, forse, è stato davvero du¬rante la guerra ad Avignone e in Russia, quello che sarebbe potuto andare in America al seguito di Douglas Fairbanks dopo aver organizzato gli spettacoli per le truppe americane al Teatro Bellini. Si configura così nel romanzo una netta separazione fra chi va e chi resta, fra il personaggio mobile e dotato di oralità narrativa e i personaggi se¬gregati e silenziosi, la madre innanzi tutto che vorrebbe, e non può, seguire il marito che va al Teatro Bellini: “…vuole andare con lui: via Zara, via Colonnello Lahalle, via Alessio Mazzocchi, piazza Carlo III, via Foria, via Costantinopoli, via Conte di Ruvo e ritorno”(p.99). Pure, il fervore narrativo del protagonista, Fe¬derì, si arresta, ci informa l’io narrante, “sulla soglia della morte di mia madre e nem¬meno di quella aveva mai raccontato niente”(p.299). Nel momento in cui se ne va al Nord, a Lu¬gano, si risposa, non organizzerà più la sua vita “in storie e rivoli di storie”. Senza il contatto con il genius loci del Racconto, e venuta meno la presenza au¬toctona di chi tace ed ascolta e provoca così la narrazione, Federì conserva sol¬tanto le imbarazzanti vanterie sessuali rivolte al figlio, che è il narratario, cioè la voce che re¬stituisce nella scrittura la piena del parlato paterno. Per questi, del resto, narrare in modo raddoppiato la storia vissuta e le storie raccontate dal padre, implica da un lato la liberazione dal loro potere – “la fascina¬zione di quella sua estrema vitalità mi devitalizzava” -, ma anche significa che chi scrive le ha ereditate per sempre, visto che è tornato a recuperarle scendendo per le vie della città “sconnessa, buona solo per la vita robusta che smania e spinge”(p.372).
Abbiamo ritrovato dunque in quest’opera contemporanea la forza di una meta¬fora spaziale inaugurata dalla cultura napoletana secondottocentesca, tra letteratura e pittura – realismo urbano e scuola di Posillipo – in dialogo con le al¬tre culture regionali dell’Italia unita. Si tratta di una sequenza formale che nel secondo Novecento è riemersa come attiva memoria anche di recente, nel racconto di Erri de Luca La città non rispose (Mondadori 1991), e nell’ultimo ro¬manzo di un grande scrittore come Michele Prisco (Gli altri, Rizzoli 1999). Al professore Starnone la storia di questa funzione metaforico-narrativa della topo¬grafia napoletana è ben nota (cfr. l’intervista rilasciata a G.Caserza sul “Mattino” del 9 settembre 2000). Credo anzi che riconoscere la consapevolezza dello scrit¬tore serva poi a meglio individuare la novità del riuso di quella struttura preesi¬stente, qui sottomessa alle ragioni novecentesche di una diaspora necessaria, di un indebolimento costitutivo della figura del Figlio, come stabilisce la scansione del testo, nell’anticlimax configurato dai tre capitoli, e raddensato in titoli, Il pavone, Il ragazzino che versa l’acqua, Il ballerino, profondamente visivi. E mi sembra che abbia ragione Giovanni Pacchiano (Gemiti di Napoli picaresca e folle, “Corriere della Sera”, 8 sett.200), nel sottolineare la suggestione del racconto che corre verso la foce dell’ultimo capitolo, dove si respira un’aria napoletana e in¬sieme, nel susseguirsi dei balli, una malinconia argentina, per intenderci, del mi¬glior Cortàzar. Grazie anche ad una prosa esatta ed eccessiva, innervata da un dialetto trascritto come continuum fonico del parlato, e perciò suono misterioso di una contro-lingua antichissima, capace di arricchire e contestare l’italiano con¬temporaneo. Spesso l’inflessione dialettale rivela la presenza dell’indiretto libero, di una proliferazione di punti di vista e di voci: “…basta niente ca car’abbasc e muoio”, dove l’io narrante strappa la prima persona alla frase rivolta dal padre alla madre che non bada al figlio.
Si chiarisce, inoltre, il significato della sintesi fra parola e immagine, fra letteratura e pittura, che rappresenta il valore più evidente di queste pagine. “…non c’è pa¬rola o sillaba o gorgoglio o schiocco che non sia subito anche un’immagine o due o cento contemporaneamente”, si legge all’inizio. E il centro del libro è appunto la storia complessa, polifonica, del farsi di un quadro paterno, I bevitori, una grande tela che occupa tutta una stanza dell’interno affollato di via Gemito e dove vengono convogliate e trasfigurate persone reali, fra le quali lo scrittore ragaz¬zino, e le ombre dei grandi pittori amati da Federì, Velazquez, Manet. Alla fine, il piccolo Mimì nella posa del ragazzino che versa l’acqua, comprende, dall’interno, che cos’è un’opera, “mobile carnevale delle forme”, essa stessa luogo: “Ca¬pivo che ogni opera era il luogo d’appuntamento di una folla”(p.272).
In tal senso questo romanzo contiene anche la teoria di se stesso, fornisce obliquamente le chiavi dell’interpre¬tazione. Si torni, ad esempio, all’idea di tempo che circola nel testo. La scrittura nel suo andirivieni tra presente e passato suggerisce una simultaneità e compre¬senza in una medesima pagina di molti tempi, esattamente come la diacronia sin¬cronizzata di una tavola sinottica, forse di una predella purgatoriale. E c’è il tempo reale della scrittura, oggi. Per lo scrittore non esi¬ste il “giorno d’oggi”, se non come tempo totale, la “vita intera, memoria e tutto”. Di qui, la forza presentificante del passato e, nella sintassi verbale, del Perfetto, dal momento che l’io narrante può esistere solo nel momento in cui produce l’Anteriorità. La vera contemporaneità, insomma, viene da lontano. A livello meta-narrativo la memoria topografica si fa, allora, romanzo sulla necessità di organizzare la realtà nel reticolo del romanzo, forma-limite, estrema clausola chiamata a contrastare il caos indicibile. E’ forse, questo, il risultato ultimo del privilegio attribuito alla forma-romanzo dalla tradizione culturale napoletana, che in questo caso funziona da antidoto.
Si può riprendere, a questo punto, il discorso accennato all’inizio sulla letteratura e sulla critica della letteratura contemporanea. In una conferenza mantovana di qualche anno fa Umberto Eco, è tornato a chiedersi cosa sia la letteratura, quali siano, oggi, le sue funzioni (cfr. “Corriere della Sera”,11 settembre 2000), con risposte, in proposito, davvero rivelatrici. Ormai Eco, si sa, dalla semiosi illimitata dell’ Opera aperta è andato sempre più individuando lo zoccolo duro dei realia. Egli si è accorto, infine, dei danni addirittura antropologici prodotti dallo scatenamento delle interpretazioni, ed ora ricorre alla pedagogia richiesta dal caso. La letteratura è oggi per Eco la simulazione necessaria che introduce l’uomo al senso incontrovertibile del testo, e con Montaigne egli oggi ripete che leggere, come il filosofare, è “imparare a morire”. Ci dice anche, però, che Dante ha fondato la lingua e la nazione italiana. Con esempi prelevati dalla più nota letteratura del passato, ivi compresa Cappuccetto Rosso, mostra che, dismessa la teoria, ciò che si può divulgare è solo una sorta di banalità ispirata e ‘griffata’, intorno al problema vero, infine individuato, della necessità della ricostituzione o fondazione del senso della letteratura.
E allora – si potrebbe concludere, – la via, faticosa, non spettacolare, è un’altra ed è quella magari indicata da opere come quella di Starnone, innovativa ma anche densa di recuperi e riattazioni di luoghi antichi, nonché da una idea di critica capace di approssimarsi al significato, che è sempre nel tempo, in quanto raccordo mobile, progressivo, persino in fuga, ma sempre storicamente rintracciabile.

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