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LE OCCASIONI LONTANE DI UNA GENERAZIONE DI SCRITTORI Roberto Balzano


Possibile mai che l’Italia di questi anni sia un posto così agevole, vivibile, bello, che i suoi scrittori non sentano in qualche modo l’esigenza di ribellarvisi?
A noi sembra che la situazione non sia poi così felice, e contemporaneamente ci appare evidente lo stato di disimpegno nei confronti della contemporaneità di gran parte dell’intellighenzia letteraria italiana. Scrittori, critici, organizzatori, opinionisti più o meno ortodossi o benpensanti, si sbraitano a gridare alla catastrofe, al buio storico, allo sfascio di qualche governo e di qualche destra “fascista”, “neofascista” o “veterofascista”, tanto quanto la sinistra continua a sembrare “comunista”, “neocomunista”, “cattocomunista”.
Ma com’è che poi nella letteratura italiana di questi anni non c’è più di qualche tentativo, timido lodevole isolato, che cerchi di rappresentare, di raccontare, di osservare i mutamenti storici, politici e sociali che stiamo vivendo? Si ha voglia a fare girotondi e conferenze, e sit-in, e sit-out, e manifestazioni, marce e marcette, ma se poi lo scrittore non propone che romanzi d’evasione, intrattenimento (quasi) allo stato puro, e per giunta si fa pubblicare dal berlusconi di turno, allora è evidente che qualcosa c’è di sbagliato nel sistema stesso, e che da qualche parte qualcuno ci racconta delle frottole.
Nessuno mette in discussione il mercato dell’editoria, il suo funzionamento e le sue logiche (e non lo faremo neanche noi), ma è inaccettabile che nessuno cerchi di utilizzare questo canale per porsi criticamente il problema della realtà italiana contemporanea. E, ben s’intenda, il problema non è lo stile, la forma, i modelli espressivi e culturali di riferimento di gran parte degli scrittori italiani d’oggi, ma il contenuto delle opere di narrativa che si scrivono e si comprano attualmente in Italia. E ci suona strano che quelli che si vestono da intellettuali (anche politicamente) impegnati, si trasformino poi, con inattesa abilità, in procacciatori di evasione, intrattenimento, di storie modulate su ritmi televisivi, per un pubblico della cui educazione evidentemente non frega più niente a nessuno.
La letteratura può e deve anche educare. Perché aver paura di dirlo? Perché smettere di credere che (anche la narrativa) possa fornire strumenti di comprensione della complessità del reale?
Invece, per chiarirci, non sembra che la letteratura italiana di questi anni, nonostante alcune dichiarazioni programmatiche di impegno, sia (stata) capace di andare almeno di poco al di là dell’accettazione più incondizionata della realtà sociale italiana, e che anzi, di fronte a questa, sia rimasta del tutto inerme e passiva. Ecco, il punto è questo: che a noi, invece, questa stessa realtà, la storia, le prospettive, i mutamenti, che abbiamo vissuto e stiamo vivendo, ci appaiono “degni di ogni indignazione”, portatori come sono di cambiamenti che consideriamo indirizzati verso una strada nefasta.
L’esplosione dirompente della volgarità e delle idiozie televisive, la comparsa di una classe dirigente incolta arrogante populista, l’affermarsi di un modello socio-economico ultraliberista e privo di garanzie, il rampantismo e lo sfruttamento, il ritorno dell’affarismo, e il corollario di anestetici sociali impartiti a dosi sempre più massicce dai media. Tutto ciò sta cambiando (ha cambiato) in peggio gli italiani, c’è ben poco da discutere. Eppure: quando e come questa nostra drammatica storia recente è stata raccontata, analizzata, denunciata dai narratori italiani? In che modo la nostra letteratura si è rapportata a questa storia? Accentandola, semplicemente, senza chiedersi se quello che ci stava capitando fosse un bene o un male, e quale potesse essere l’avvenire di una società arrivata a tali livelli di cinismo e non più disposta ad abbandonarli. Molti scrittori italiani di questi anni (novanta ed oltre), si sono messi a rincorrere una modernità che qualche volta è stata innovazione di forme e modi della rappresentazione, ma che raramente ha saputo trasformarsi in contenuti, in idee, in visioni, in spunti di (auto)riflessione.
Quello che lamentiamo è la mancanza di un ancoraggio certo, evidente, programmaticamente approfondito, della letteratura alla realtà sociale e antropologica dentro la quale essa pur nasce. Soltanto una scrittura attenta ai drammi della nostra contemporaneità, lucidamente critica nei confronti di essa, può essere in grado di svolgere quella necessaria opera (quantomeno) di testimonianza, impossibilitata ad altri linguaggi che, per quanto moderni, sembrano troppo compromessi con un modello in tutto e per tutto consumistico, irriflessivo, e spettacolarizzato di cultura.
Ecco: se gli scrittori smettono la capacità e la voglia di indignarsi, di denunciare, di proporre, di urlare la condizione di malessere comune, allora, crediamo, non ha più alcun senso parlare di letteratura, e sarebbe il caso di parlare semplicemente di un indistinto mercato dei libri, refrattario ad ogni logica o volontà in qualche modo portatrice di valori culturali comuni e condivisibili.
Compito di quanti si sentono ben lontani dall’accettare lo status della situazione italiana, non dovrebbe essere quello di gridare “al lupo, al lupo!”, e poi di agire secondo la più bieca logica del “si salvi chi può”. Quanti hanno in mano gli strumenti per parlare ad un pubblico ampio, ad una massa che più o meno attentamente li ascolta, dovrebbero denunciare quello che secondo loro non va, non funziona, danneggia, ma dovrebbero farlo attraverso i loro libri. È l’opera di un autore che per prima testimonia del suo impegno civile e ideale, e che ne garantisce la coerenza. Siamo stufi di scrittori e intellettuali che pubblicano libri senza nerbo, e che poi gracchiano contro il potere e il governo dai salotti televisivi, dalle colonne dei giornali, nelle manifestazioni e nelle assemblee.
L’impegno, la sfida da raccogliere, per gli scrittori italiani del futuro (vicino? lontano?), è quella contro l’omologazione e l’omogeinizzazione dei valori, contro un sistema che assorbe tutto, che vanifica e rende innocuo ogni sforzo di denuncia. Contro l’indifferenza si combatte, e se il nemico è al momento invincibile, di certo non è inscalfibile, ed in ogni caso val sempre la pena di resistere. Adeguarsi, essere compiacenti con la presunta idiosincrasia del pubblico al libro (al romanzo) impegnato, significherebbe mancare storicamente il ruolo e la funzione della letteratura in questa critica contingenza storica.
Certo, lo sforzo va indirizzato verso la ricerca di forme nuove, intelligenti, idonee, di attaccare la contemporaneità. Ma se la letteratura smette di essere legata alla storia che le accade attorno, non è più in discussione il primato tra capacità creativa e fedeltà al dato storico, bensì la sua stessa sopravvivenza.
In Italia, ci sembra, corriamo proprio questo rischio: che sempre più pochi, nei libri che scrivono, continuino a farsi carico di interrogativi e di domande sui grandi fenomeni dei quali sono testimoni. E che sempre più pochi li leggano.
La strada unica possibile che intravediamo è quella del confronto caparbio e prolungato con la realtà della nostra situazione odierna. Vivere la scrittura anche come una modalità di relazione con l’attualità, come un’attitudine che in qualche modo possa rappresentare una tensione per coloro che la praticano. La mancanza di questa tensione trasforma gli scrittori in contrabbandieri di disordinate e comode verità. Sinceramente ci sentiamo di scongiurare questa eventualità, per quanto essa rappresenti una triste costante nel panorama letterario di questi anni.
Conta soprattutto l’ampiezza dell’orizzonte all’interno del quale uno scrittore, o un gruppo di scrittori, decidono di operare. Alzare un poco di più la testa, essere più critici, anche cattivi se necessario, servirà ad evitare che la nostra volontà di narrare e di raccontare si dilegui, per non essere stati uomini. Capaci di cercare le nostre occasioni lontano.


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