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INTERVISTA A VALERIO EVANGELISTI di Davide L. Malesi


Valerio Evangelisti è nato a Bologna nel 1952. Dopo avere pubblicato cinque volumi e una quarantina di saggi di storia, si è dedicato interamente alla narrativa. Nel 1994 è uscito il suo primo romanzo, “Nicolas Eymerich, inquisitore”, che ha vinto il Premio Urania.

Sono seguiti “Le catene di Eymerich” (1995), “Il corpo e il sangue di Eymerich” (1996), “Il mistero dell’inquisitore Eymerich” (1996); “Cherudek” (1997), “Picatrix, la scala per l’inferno” (1998), “Il castello di Eymerich” (2001), pubblicati da Mondadori. L’antologia “Metallo urlante” (1998) e il romanzo “Black Flag” (2002) sono stati pubblicati da Einaudi.
Nel 1999 è uscito in tre volumi, anch’esso presso Mondadori, “Magus. Il romanzo di Nostradamus”, tradotto in nove lingue e in tre continenti. Nel 2000 L’Ancora del Mediterraneo ha pubblicato la raccolta di saggi “Alla periferia di Alphaville. Interventi sulla paraletteratura.”
I romanzi incentrati su Eymerich sono tradotti in Francia, Spagna, Germania e Portogallo. Hanno valso all’autore, nel 1998, il Grand Prix de l’Imaginaire e, nel 1999, il Prix Tour Eiffel: i premi più prestigiosi riservati in Francia alla letteratura fantastica e di fantascienza. Il quotidiano Le Monde ha pubblicato un racconto di Evangelisti in un supplemento speciale. Il Venerdì di Repubblica, nel 1996, ha proposto un suo romanzo a puntate.
Attualmente, dopo avere conseguito nel 2000 il Prix Italia per la fiction radiofonica, scrive sceneggiature per radio, cinema, televisione e fumetti. Ha fatto parte della delegazione ufficiale degli scrittori italiani al Salon du Livre di Parigi del 2001.

Tu hai raggiunto la popolarità grazie all´inquisitore Eymerich, un personaggio dai tratti fortemente antieroici, che nemmeno la fantasia più sbrigliata può interpretare come un “eroe positivo”. Credi che questa sia la dimostrazione che i luoghi comuni della narrativa (per esempio, il fatto che “la gente ama il lieto fine”, come scrisse Edmund Wilson a Scott Fitzgerald) siano luoghi comuni e basta?

Valerio Evangelisti: Sono luoghi comuni ma con un fondo di verità, se per “lieto fine” intendiamo un ristabilimento degli equilibri turbati. Questo, di solito, il lettore lo cerca. Invece non credo che cerchi un finale zuccheroso. Romanzi immensamente popolari, come per esempio la trilogia dei moschettieri di Dumas, hanno epiloghi cupi e drammatici. Il mio caso è diverso, perché chi trionfa è un personaggio ambiguo, e non si sa se l’equilibrio ristabilito abbia alla base il bene o il male.

Tu sei considerato, a torto o a ragione, uno scrittore di fantascienza. Non ti dispiace l´etichetta di “scrittore di genere”?

No, non mi dispiace, data anche l’enorme libertà e la ricchezza di potenzialità che il “genere” possiede. Dubito però che ciò che scrivo io sia definibile come fantascienza. E’ piuttosto narrativa fantastica, comprendente anche elementi di science fiction.

Pensi che la fantascienza abbia un futuro? Il panorama letterario, a livello internazionale, non è entusiasmante. Anche gli autori più interessanti, come il francese Serge Lehman, non sembrano avere il nerbo di colossi del secolo scorso come Ray Bradbury, Kurt Vonnegut o Philip K. Dick.

La fantascienza letteraria avrà un futuro se tornerà a imboccare la via della complessità, altrimenti perderà il confronto con altri media più agguerriti sul piano dell’impatto sull’immaginario. Nel momento attuale sono questi ultimi a dominare il campo della science fiction, mentre la narrativa, specie anglosassone, sembra cercare di imitare il loro linguaggio.

Cosa ti spinge a raccontare una storia? Da dove vengono le idee per un tuo romanzo?

Il più delle volte le idee mi vengono da un’immagine o da una musica, o anche da un libro che mi ha suggestionato.

Fai leggere brani del tuo romanzo ad altri prima che sia terminato? C’è un fortunato anticipatore del correttore di bozze?

No, nessuno deve vedere il mio romanzo prima che sia completo, e dopo non accetto che interventi marginali. Se qualcuno riesce a leggere contro la mia volontà pagine del libro in elaborazione, sono capace di distruggerle. È già successo più di una volta.

Quando scrivi vorresti ti leggesse più gente possibile o la gente migliore possibile? Conta di più il successo di critica o quello di pubblico?

Senza un successo di pubblico, è ben difficile che la critica ti consideri. Diciamo che auspico la presenza, tra quel pubblico, anche di persone intelligenti e preparate.

C’è un libro che secondo te rappresenta il paradigma del romanzo, l’esempio perfetto di questa forma letteraria?

Forse “Il conte di Montecristo”, del già ricordato Dumas. Raduna tutti gli elementi della tragedia antica in una forma narrativa fluviale e coinvolgente. Grandioso.

Che giudizio hai della narrativa italiana di questi ultimi anni? Vedi qualche faro o solo stelle cadenti? Nella prefazione dell´antologia “Tutti i denti del mostro sono perfetti” si percepisce, da parte tua, un forte entusiasmo per il panorama dei giovani scrittori italiani.

Dei “giovani scrittori” che elogiavo in “Tutti i denti del mostro sono perfetti” solo pochi sono sopravvissuti al passaggio all’età matura. Ma, detto questo, non mi sento di dare un giudizio sulla narrativa italiana recente, perché me ne capita troppo poca tra le mani. Nemmeno riesco a cogliere un profilo netto che la renda omogenea.

Come consideri, invece, lo stato di salute dell’editoria italiana?

È un altro campo di cui so poco. Si è sempre detta in crisi e continua a dirsi tale. Può darsi che la crisi sia la sua condizione normale di esistenza.


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